Inflation is the increase in prices of goods and services. There are many factors that cause inflation to occur, but 7 common causes have been found: 1) demand exceeds supply; 2) money creation outpaces economic growth; 3) wage increases outpace productivity gains; 4) government spending outpaces tax revenues; 5) trade imbalances magnify global income disparity due to outsourcing labor from developed economies with higher wages to developing economies with low wages or no wage at all, 6 ) fiscal deficits coming from domestic debt repayments or foreign lending, and 7 ) a change in monetary policy by central banks

The “causes of inflation” is a list of 7 factors that cause inflation. Some of these factors include, the increase in population and the increase in demand for goods and services.

When the price of products and services rises in respect to the dollar or the currency in use, this is referred to as inflation. As a consequence, the dollar or unit of currency will purchase less of almost everything than it did earlier.

Inflation may be hard for persons on fixed incomes or those who work in professions where earnings do not grow in tandem with price rises. Inflation may destabilize an economy if it reaches hyperinflation, which occurs when prices rise by 50% or more in a year. When inflation happens amid a recession, a condition known as stagflation, it is much more difficult to control.

Here’s a deeper look at how to measure inflation and seven reasons why prices rise.

5 ways to protect yourself against inflation

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What Causes Inflation in the Economy?

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The Consumer Price Index (CPI), which is generated by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) each month, is the most widely used indicator of inflation. It keeps track of the average price of a group of products and services in the transportation, food, and healthcare sectors.

Despite the fact that the CPI excludes major components of consumer expenditure like real estate and education, it is nonetheless seen as a useful indicator of the ever-changing cost of living. The wholesale price index (WPI), which monitors and records changes in the price of commodities and other items transferred between firms, also displays signs of inflation.

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1. The Economy Is Performing Well

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More people have employment when the economy is booming, salaries increase to attract and retain those employees, and more people have money to spend. As a consequence, people purchase additional essentials and, in some cases, new luxury goods.

Businesses may raise their pricing in this atmosphere, and wholesalers can raise their prices as well. The end outcome of an expansionary cycle is greater pricing.

This is why inflation isn’t necessarily a negative thing. In reality, the Federal Reserve aspires for a target annual inflation rate of roughly 2% since it implies that the economy is expanding.

Because it is driven by consumer demand, this kind of inflation is also referred to as “demand-pull inflation.” In reality, deflation – when the price of things falls over a period of time – may be harmful since it indicates a lack of customer demand.

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2. There is more money to be obtained.

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Inflation may also arise when the Fed, or another central bank, releases fiat money at a faster pace than the economy’s growth rate. As a result, there are more dollars bidding on fewer goods and services, resulting in a scenario where there are more dollars bidding on fewer products and services. As a consequence, products and services are more expensive.

Because the Federal Reserve has consistently expanded the money supply since 1933, inflation has been a constant in the United States. In reaction to the financial crisis of 2008, the Federal Reserve cut its lending rate to near zero to pump more cash into the economy, resulting in higher inflation but not hyperinflation. While frequently increasing in lockstep with expansion, this hasn’t always been the case.

The Fed provided the equivalent of $3.8 trillion in additional money in 2020 in response to the COVID-19 epidemic and subsequent lockdowns. That sum amounted to nearly 20% of all dollars in circulation at the time. And it’s one of the reasons why many investors were keeping a tight eye on the CPI in 2021.

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3. The cost of basic commodities is rising.

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Inflation was rife in the United States throughout the 1970s. The oil embargoes imposed by OPEC were one of the main causes behind this. The embargoes resulted in a gas scarcity, increased home-heating oil prices, higher gas prices, and higher production and shipping costs for practically every consumer commodity.

Inflation-adjusted oil prices soared from $25.97 per barrel to $46.35 per barrel between 1973 and 1974. As a consequence, inflation reached 11% in that year.

The era of 1979-1981, when inflation reached 10% for three years in a row, was another of the most extreme episodes of inflation. Oil was a key contributor once again, as the Iranian Revolution triggered additional rises in oil prices.

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4. The real estate market takes off.

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The housing market is a vital component of the American economy. It also has a significant influence on the overall economy. When the housing market is robust and house values are growing, homeowners have more equity to draw on when making large expenditures, which may drive inflation higher.

A healthy housing market, on the other hand, indicates that homeowners, contractors, and builders are spending more on house upgrades and purchasing the raw materials needed to create those new and upgraded homes. This, in turn, raises the price of raw resources like steel, timber, and oil, potentially leading to even greater inflation.

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The government pursues budgetary measures that are pro-growth.

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The federal government will attempt to stimulate economic development on occasion by enacting new policies. The goal of these expansionary fiscal policies is to enhance the amount of discretionary cash available to firms and consumers.

These policies often take the form of lower taxes, with the expectation that firms would spend the money on employee salaries and new hires. More people will be able to spend on products and services as a result of this.

Occasionally, these policies include large-scale infrastructure initiatives that may boost demand for products and services. The growth of total liquidity as a result of central bank monetary policy is sometimes referred to as a policy of expansion.

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6. Costs are rising due to new requirements.

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While a lack of an important item, such as oil, may generate inflation, so can a rise in expenses due to government restrictions.

New tariffs may sometimes raise the cost of imported products, resulting in inflation. At the same time, new restrictions that make obtaining a specific item or service more costly or time-consuming might raise consumer expenses, resulting in inflation.

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7. Changes in the currency rate

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The US dollar’s value in respect to all other foreign currencies is continually fluctuating. Imported commodities and consumer items become more costly when the dollar falls in value. However, it lowers the cost of items sent from the United States overseas, which may help the economy.

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The food that was delivered

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Since 1933, inflation has been a constant in the United States. Inflation is usually a gradual drip of nearly undetectable price rises, although there have been periods when it has spiked, such as in the late 1970s and early 1980s. For many customers, this was a trying time, and inflation became a significant political problem.

Since then, inflation has been generally slow, although economists and market analysts have debated whether it would take up significantly again in 2021, following stimulus programs during the COVID-19 epidemic and a reopening of the economy increased asset values and GDP.

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This article originally appeared on SoFi.com and was syndicated by MediaFeed.org.

 

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AlertMe

Inflation is the process of an economy’s prices rising over a period of time. It can be caused by many factors, such as demand for goods and services that exceeds supply, or by a government printing too much money. Reference: effects of inflation.

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